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Skeletal Muscles

The great range and variety of functions served by skeletal muscles can be suggested by naming just four: the diaphragm, used in breathing; the muscles that make the eye wink; the deltoid muscle that gives the shoulder its shape; and the tongue.

Skin, Hair and Nails

Perhaps no other organ of the human body receives so much attention both from its owner and the eyes of others as the skin and its associated structures - hair and nails.

The Brain - Cerebrum

What we usually mean by "brain" is that part of the brain called the cerebrum. It is the cerebrum that permits us all our distinctly human activities - thinking, speaking, reading, writing.


All children have accidents and injure themselves.


If fears are often legitimate and usually outgrown through reassuring experiences, phobias are deep-seated unconquerable fears.

From the Author: Fernando Lachica

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Are You Old Enough to Do The Exercises for Later Life?

Young muscles that are not used come to resemble the muscles of the aged.

To a very considerable extent, the reverse of that statement is also true: symptoms of aging may in fact be symptoms of disuse. Many senior citizens who exercise can hold off these symptoms and cussed in preserving a youthful appearance, psyche, and level of fitness.

The mention of “psyche” is important. Upon entering his 60’s, or the retirement period, or any significant stage of later life, a person may feel that he is dying a small death. He may find it difficult to face the changes that later life brings: reduced involvement, more time to think about himself, a sense of decaying and decreased importance, and so on.

He may find it less difficult if he has remained physically active, or if he can become physically active. By retaining some vigor, he may also retain a positive feeling about himself. He may have greater courage, and thus be able to try out new and stimulating experiences. He may move with greater ease and grace, presenting a trim and attractive figure. And the fit older person has a degree of independence that his less fit neighbor does not have. He need not call on friends, relatives, or others for help. He retains a large measure of personal freedom.

The principles behind a golden-age fitness program are essentially the same as those already specified for younger and mature adults. But the older person, perhaps even more than the younger one, has to move in easy stages. Even after testing and medical clearance, he should not undertake too much too fast. He will probably want to increase repetitions as his program progresses, and gradually add more difficult exercises. The main alternative, to overload by increasing intensity, might cause undue strain.

Physiologically, the older person faces a slight different problem from the younger. He cannot reach the same high heart rates that the younger one achieves. Thus the older person has a correspondingly lower target heart rate.
The older person may be exercising just as hard as his younger counterpart. But the older person’s pulse rate response will be lower. He will have reached the same percentage of his maximum as the younger person, only sooner. Those realities apply to women as well as to men. Women can achieve approximately the same maximum heart rates as men of comparable ages.

Warm-up and cool-down are as important or more so for older people as for younger. Running in place warms up the body effectively; so do easy stretching, pulling, and rotating exercises. In the main part of the workout, vigorous exercise should be alternated with periods of less strenuous activity.

A Warm-up Routine. The older person planning his or her own fitness program may want to invent a warm-up series of exercises. Alternatively, he may want to try the plan: the routine is performed over a five-or-six-minute period.

1) Take a deep breath while rising on your toes with arms extended over your head. Exhale slowly. Repeat three times, then lift your left and right knees in succession. Repeat the knee lifts ten times.

2) Start walking. You will want to increase the amount of walking you do by small increments. Walk erect, keeping your head up and remaining comfortable.

Concentrate on walking heel to toe. That means that as you put your foot down, rock forward to your toes, thus strengthening your leg muscles. Gradually pick up the pace of your stride.

Whatever the older person exerciser does to extend or supplement the daily schedule, he should keep in mind that he can retain the high level of fitness by his own energy input. Always consult your doctor with regards to your daily exercise routine.


How to Conquer Mental Fatigue

Getting the right brain to work in harmony with your left brain is quite a challenge.

I have this mental picture of my brain as a lion tamer. My left brain is cracking the whip, forcing my right brain to perform artistically as it roars loudly, but complies nonetheless. Needless to say, this tug-of-war between cranial regions can produce mental fatigue. And prolonged mental fatigue is the preface of burnout, which must be avoided at all costs.

There are few things you can do to relieve the pressure on your gray cells, and taking these precautions will quickly extinguish the flames of burnout before you are charred beyond recognition. When you start to feel a little crispy, remember these things:

1) Keep your sense of humor. Laughter, seeing the humorous side, will always relieve your mental strain and brighten your outlook on life.

2) Make to-do lists. When your head becomes filled with the minutiae of all the billions of details you need to remember, take time to write it all down. Make a list of everything that is bothering you. The physical act of writing lets your left brain stop nagging you long enough to allow your right brain to get down to the business of creating.

3) Take a nature break and spend some time out of doors, no matter what the weather is like. Just a few minutes to breathe fresh air, feel the sun on your skin, study the sky and cloud formations, watch a bird fly past, make a snowball, pick a flower or go barefoot in the grass will renew your energy level and refresh your spirit.

4) Exercise daily. Even a short walk will help get oxygen to your brain, and the brain chemicals (endorphins) released during aerobic exercise help the brain to function better.

5) Eat regularly. A brief interlude to have snacks and perhaps some chocolate will give your painting a fresh new perspective.

6) Stay organized. Take the time to straighten out your paperwork, materials and other undertakings which relates to your professional job.

7) Seek assistance, gather support and rally the troops during the busy spells. Delegate as much responsibility as possible, and pass on every task that you do not have to do yourself.

8) Take a holiday. This is a variation on the theme of the proverbial mental health day. Go to a place of your choice that could allow your thoughts to assemble peacefully with your motivation.

9) Reward yourself. Pat yourself on the back often, and indulge yourself with a little treat when you’ve accomplished something on your job.

If the quick fixes don’t seem to douse the flames of burnout, you probably have a more serious case. True burnout is the hopeless feeling you get when you have too much to do, with too many responsibilities and not enough time to get everything completed in the manner you want. If you function this way for too long, you will begin to feel like blackened toast.

Beware of the symptoms of burnout: the fleeting desire to go get a “real” job; being totally exhausted even after a full night’s sleep; suffering from recurring or chronic illness; or finding yourself short-tempered and overly cranky. There are other dreaded symptoms of burnout: Procrastination, Pessimism, Peevish Perfectionism. If you can use any of these four words to describe your current frame of mind, it is time to perform triage and salve the blisters.